All roses require regular and adequate pruning. Pruning is in fact the most important operation for the future life of these plants, as well as for flowering. When it is well done, it corrects its shape, stimulating vegetation and significantly influencing flowering, both in terms of distribution and volume.
The various species require a different intervention, while the best time (except for the creepers) is the period of 2-3 weeks prior to the vegetative restart, that is from 15-20 January to 15-20 March, according to latitude, exposure and altitude. In any case, you should never prune during the months of intense cold.
Before proceeding to the pruning roses It is good practice to check that the work tools are in a good state of maintenance: in particular, the scissors must be sharp and well defined.
Furthermore, it must always be kept in mind that most roses produce flowers on the branches of the year. For this reason, if you prune in the wrong period, you risk compromising the flowering of the season. There are also roses that bloom on the branches of the previous year (e.g. generally all climbing roses and some bush roses). These roses will need to be pruned just after flowering.
Most of the roses are grafted. In fact, by using a vigorous rootstock, a better developed root system is obtained. During the growth of the plant it often happens that suckers form from the roots (recognizable by the different foliage). These branches also produce flowers, but are often of little ornamental value and for this reason they must be cut off. The cut must be clean and grazing the point of the root from which the branch appears. If the sucker grows far from the plant it is not enough to cut it on the ground, but you will have to go back to the root.
The pruning methods related to the different growths will be indicated below.
All roses planted in the winter must be pruned in early spring. The roses planted instead in spring are pruned when they are planted (see fig. 1). All the damaged branches and those that grow inwards are cut to form a kind of bowl (see fig. 2). Always prune at the buds facing outwards. About 3-4 buds are left.
The rose bushes that are little or badly developed can be maximized to make them stronger. With a light pruning, in fact, the weak branches tend to stretch further, weakening further. Instead, vigorous ones are pruned moderately, so that they can vent their exuberance in vegetation and flowering. An excessive pruning of these branches, in fact, would make a lot of suckers grow which would remove sap from the branches destined for flowering. Then remove all the suckers that developed during the winter. Cut all dry or damaged branches and old ones. As a general rule, three to four buds should be left on the weaker branches and five to six buds on the more robust branches. Always prune at the buds facing outwards.