Spruce: features and uses
This is a tree that lives in the high mountains and its shape probably derives from adaptive processes with the aim of surviving the pressure of the snow without being damaged.
The crown, in fact, is generally of an elongated and straight conical shape, but at low altitudes it can become a little more expanded.
It can reach 40 meters in height (for adult individuals) and about 80 cm in diameter of the stem. Just the latter is the element that gives the name to the tree thanks to its coloring which is red but which when ripe becomes a yellow brown color.
The main branches of this tree are those that give the crown its specific shape and are therefore facing upwards, while the secondary branches are pendulous.
The leaves are needle-like and typical of conifers, they are light green in origin, but become a beautiful dark green color and very pointed when ripe.
The reproductive organs represent well the canons of the Gimnosperms. These are structures made up of leaves that have differentiated by reproductive function and are called Sporophylls. There are two types: male conical and yellow-brown microsporophylls; female macrofilli, bright red and united in clusters.
The production of gametes by these portions of the plant and the consequent fertilization leads to the formation of those that are known by the name of Pigne within which the seeds are enclosed. The pine cones are a set of woody scales that hang from the plant until they reach maturity, after which they fall to the ground, opening and releasing their content into the environment. It is precisely to the seeds that both the reproduction and the propagation of the species are entrusted.
The flowering period varies between April and May, however in the Spring.
Some other features
These large trees are widespread in the Alps but there are spruce forests in northern Europe and North America as well.
They do not have great climatic preferences and are able to tolerate both high and rigid temperatures well, but they love to receive direct sunlight throughout the year. Young individuals could suffer damage from winter frosts so it would be best to repair them from them.
They live very well in acid soils, but if they are to be grown in pots, it is advisable to create a mixture of peat, sand and clay to facilitate the drainage of the water and create the most congenial conditions for him.
Generally it does not require pruning but can be performed to give greater consistency and a more regular shape to the crown.